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Shadowy figures lurking on the fringe



The boys' choir from Zambia sang in churches, schools and shopping malls across the United States. In exchange for their hard work, the boys were promised an education, wages that could be sent home to family and a school that would be built in Africa.
People who heard the 12-member a cappella choir were touched. They reached into their wallets and purses and offered up donations. The boys, ranging in age from 12 to 17, sang a mixture of gospels in English and their native tongue. They brought in more than $1 million, yet saw little of it. They received room and board and the occasional token payment, but no wages, no education, no school back home.
The boys are among the faces of modern-day slavery - in their case, trafficked into the United States under the guise of a faith-based organization that preyed on them.
"They were brought here for a specific purpose and that was to get as much out of them - with no regard for them or their futures," says Sal Orrantia, a U.S. immigration agent who worked the case.
The number of people ensnared in modern-day slavery ranges from 12 million, according to the United Nations, to 27 million, according to leading anti-slavery activists like Kevin Bales. Another prominent activist, Siddharth Kara of Harvard, estimates the number could be as high as 30 million. The broad range is the result of challenges associated with tracking a practice hidden in shadows and finding a consensus on how best to define and measure it.
Experts agree the vast majority of slaves today live in Asia and the Pacific, where they are held against their will as a result of debt bondage in agriculture and domestic work. Millions of others across the globe are used for sexual exploitation.
"To me, slavery means one person who is completely under the control of another person, that they use violence to maintain that control, they exploit them, make money out of them and that the [victim] just can't walk away," says Bales.
"Those are the fundamental criteria really for what slavery has always been about throughout all of human history."
Bales heads Free the Slaves, an organization that works to liberate exploited men, women and children across the globe and make sure they remain free.
"Our ultimate goal is the end of slavery on planet Earth. We really believe that's possible," Bales says.
He says modern-day slavery must be attacked on four fronts - politics, business, religion and society - for it to be eradicated. He compares the current fight to the global determination to eradicate small pox decades ago.
Today's slavery differs greatly from the trans-Atlantic slave trade, when from 1501 to 1867 an estimated 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the Americas. Back then, slave owners were typically prominent members of society, and a massive economic system was based on the global institution of slavery.
Today, enslavers are mostly shadowy figures lurking in the fringes.
"Slavery has been pushed to the very edge of society," says Bales. "It's really standing on the brink of its own extinction. And if we understand that and get together and give it one really hard boot, we can kick it over the edge into extinction."
Bales' mission began more than a decade ago when he first met a young woman named Seba in Paris. At age 9, Seba was taken from her home in Mali by a family friend, who promised the girl a better life in France. Seba cooked for the friend's family, looked after her children – and was often punished with beatings.
"Once in 1992, I was late going to get the children from school; my mistress and her husband were furious with me and beat [me] and then threw me out on the street," Seba told Bales in his 1999 best-seller, "Disposable People."
"I had nowhere to go; I didn't understand anything, and I wandered the streets. After some time, her husband found me and took me back to their house. There they stripped me naked, tied my hands behind my back, and began to whip me with a wire attached to a broomstick."
Seba was freed when a neighbor heard her screams and called police. She had been held for so long she didn't know her age when she was freed.
Across the globe, the stories of modern-day slavery bear a similar theme.
In Ghana, a 9-year-old boy hauls heavy equipment from boat to shore in a fishing village under the midday sun. At the end of a long, hot day, sometimes he'll only get a beating.
In Haiti, a group of teens stand frightened just before they're raped - initiation into forced prostitution. The ring is run by criminals in Port-au-Prince's notorious Cite Soleil slum, a trade that survived last year's massive earthquake and continues to thrive.
And in Texas, the voices of the Zambia Acappella Boys Choir were used to profit their captor, a Christian missionary who recruited the boys from Africa and brought them to the U.S. in the late 1990s.
The missionary, Keith Grimes, ran a faith-based group called TTT: Partners in Education. The federal government began investigating in 1998 after church members in Texas filed complaints raising concern about the treatment of the boys.
When Grimes died of natural causes, the investigation ended. In 2001, the U.S. Department of Labor ruled that Grimes' group was liable for nearly $1 million in back wages and civil penalties for the members of the choir. To date, none of the boys has received any of the money because Grimes died and his company was bankrupt.
Across the globe, dozens of organizations like Bales' work with governments and groups on the front lines to crack down on slavery.
In northern India, a rehabilitation center called Bal Vikas Ashram helps children ages 8 to 14 recover from enslavement by carpet loom owners. It also helps organize raids on slave owners. In the last year, the group helped free 111 children.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, human rights groups work to free slaves being used by warring factions in mines rich in gold and other metals. In some cases, villagers are snatched at gunpoint and forced to work; other times, women and girls are forced into the sex trade around the mines.
In the United States, groups work with women and girls to recover from the trauma of forced prostitution, where they are raped and held against their will by pimps.
Shamere McKenzie says she became enslaved at 19. She needed $3,000 for college and met a young man on the campus of St. John's University in New York who said he could help. He turned out to be a pimp who kept her captive for a year and a half.
"When I told him I didn't want to do this anymore, I remember being choked until I peed on myself," McKenzie says. "I was just choked, beaten up, thrown on the floor and beaten.
"A lot of people asked why did I do it for so long if it was something I didn't want to do. But being in a situation like that, you're controlled by fear."
She says her pimp had anywhere from three to 12 women and girls under his control at any time. On a typical day, McKenzie says she would wake up around 9 a.m., be sent to a strip club around noon and work the streets until 7 p.m.
She and the others would then sleep until 10 p.m. before being sent back out. McKenzie tried to run away three times, but her pimp would threaten to kill her and harm her family. "All the girls were afraid of him."
McKenzie's prostitution ended when police stopped the car she was driving. Her pimp and other prostitutes were in the car, including a 12-year-old girl. Even though she was being held against her will, she was charged with transferring a minor across state lines and convicted. The pimp was convicted as well.
Tina Frundt is now helping McKenzie in her recovery. Frundt is the founder of Courtney's House, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit group that helps women and girls who have been exploited by the sex trade.
Frundt says she was forced into prostitution at age 13 in Cleveland, Ohio. Since Courtney's House began in 2008, the organization has helped 500 victims escape sex trafficking. The average age of girls being forced into slavery in the U.S., Frundt says, is between 11 and 14.
"In the U.S., we commercialize forced prostitution and pimping - we glamorize it with 'pimp this' and 'pimp that,'" she says. "And so, of course, we make it look like it's a choice. ... And overseas we make it look sad and that these girls are forced in.
"But the truth and reality is: In Thailand, girls call their traffickers 'pimp.' In Honduras, girls call their traffickers 'pimp.' In the U.S., the girls call their traffickers 'pimp.' So there is no difference."
She says Americans need to wake up about the realities of what is happening on the streets in their country. "We have an epidemic."
"Being raped, held hostage, tied up is not something that you choose to do," she says. "How did I get out? Unfortunately, it's how many of our kids get out. I ran to the police and they arrested me."
Even though she was a child, she spent the next year in juvenile detention because prostitution is illegal. Her pimp remained at large, Frundt says.
It's an all-too-common theme for those combating human trafficking.
"These are people, whether they're from another country or whether they're enslaved at home … who have been trapped in a situation that they can't get out of," says Luis CdeBaca, who heads the State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, an office created in 2000.
CdeBaca, an ambassador-at-large, was appointed by President Obama in 2009 to coordinate U.S. government activities to bring an end to modern-day slavery.
He says traffickers prey on the vulnerabilities of the victims - who many times are seeking a better life - and "they pervert it."
"Instead of being the opportunity that the victims want, it becomes the trap," says CdeBaca. "One of the things that's horrible about the human trafficking situation in the 21st century is that you can sell a person over and over and over."
He says governments must better train law enforcement about the proliferation of human trafficking, and that non-government organizations must continue pushing governments to do more.
"If you don't have a cultural impact where people have decided together to say 'no' to modern slavery, there's no reason why law enforcement should be out there doing this on their own," he says. "It really starts when the cultures change."




Romania a global center for human trafficking




 Romania has become a major transit for the sale of people into the European Union. Victims as young as 12 years old are trafficked into Romania from destinations as far-reaching as Honduras, Afghanistan, the Congo, and China. Once they reach Romania, many of these victims are assigned for passage beyond into Western Europe.
While Romanian law officially prohibits all forms of human trafficking, the country's strategic geographic location -- a crossroads between East and West -- makes it a source, transit and destination country for the people trade. The country's 2007 admission into the European Union brought more relaxed border regulations and enhanced its attraction for international human traffickers.
The U.S. State Department's Trafficking in Persons Report of 2010 found that organized crime networks also target Romanian citizens for export to other European countries. Traffickers commonly use fake identifications and bribe border personnel to bring victims into the country. They then force the victims to work in agricultural and factory production, prostitution, modeling for pornography and street begging.
The agency I run, Not For Sale, has identified Romania as an international hot spot for modern slavery. Our team operating on the ground in this Eastern European country intervened in nearly 140 trafficking cases last year alone.
It's tragic to see young girls sold in an Amsterdam street and then follow their journey back to a humble village in Romania.
--David Batstone
Romanian authorities say that during the past two years, a Lebanese businessman, Hassan Awdi, persuaded 13 Honduran men and women to travel to Romania under the auspices of helping them find a job. Upon entering the country, officials say, Awdi confiscated their passports and forced them to work without pay for a factory of which he is part owner. The Hondurans eventually managed to escape their trafficker, yet found themselves in a foreign country without identification, resources, or shelter. Not For Sale intervened and helped the victims receive favorable treatment from the Romanian courts and government. The victims recently were repatriated home to Honduras. Awdi was charged with multiple offenses, including human trafficking, but has not yet gone to trial.
By and large, local police turn a blind eye to these crimes and social services for the victims are practically nonexistent. In 2009, the Romanian government minimized the role of the country's principal anti-trafficking arm -- the National Agency Against Trafficking in Persons -- and allocated scant federal funding to provide victim services and anti-trafficking prevention programs.
The burden for addressing human trafficking therefore falls mostly on poorly funded nonprofits. Not For Sale Romania, for example, provides survivors with shelter, medical and psychological services, as well as educational and vocational opportunities. In the best-case scenario, our team reintegrates the survivors into their families, as long as they are not exposed to the risk of being re-trafficked.
Local police turn a blind eye to these crimes and social services for the victims are practically nonexistent.
--David Batstone
Last month I personally tracked the slave trade across Europe. I started my investigation with the women for sale in the showroom windows of Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. It's tragic to see young girls sold in plain sight in an Amsterdam street and then follow their journey back to a humble village in Romania.
My key source on the ground was the Scarlet Cord, a nonprofit that has been building relationships with sex workers in the red-light districts of the Netherlands since 1987. Their field research reveals that 75% of the sex workers in the Netherlands at the moment originate from the Eastern European countries of Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria. Hungary is also one of the more recent member states of the European Union.
The influx of young girls from Eastern Europe can be directly attributed to the lack of job opportunities at home and the easy access to wealthier European markets. That formula makes young girls an easy target for traffickers who promise lucrative jobs in London, Rome or Amsterdam. The lack of government and police priority on human trafficking across Europe also allows the trade to flourish.
For government and police authorities in Europe to start identifying trafficking victims for who they are -- no longer labeled as illegal immigrants or prostitutes -- will be a necessary step forward. Whenever the poor and vulnerable do not have access to legal justice, they will be exploited. That's a maxim as true in Europe and the United States as it is in India and Kenya.
Hand in hand with a just rule of law must come an entrepreneurial effort to generate real job opportunities in Romania. That economic stimulation is unlikely to come from a top-down grant of financial aid to the national government. More sustained results will be achieved by investments in small- and medium-sized enterprises that can demonstrate a credible business model and generate real jobs for Romanians.
Romania's human trafficking problem does not stay home; it is Europe's crisis as well. The same people who run the people trade are likely candidates for other forms of nefarious crimes that threaten national security. Indeed, the security of all of Europe depends on innovative solutions to what may seem as intractable problems. As long as we keep repeating the same protocols, we are sure to get the same dire results.

OTHER NEWS......

Grocery CEO resigns after arrest in child prostitution stingupdated February 14, 2011

The chief executive officer of a Western grocery store chain resigned after he was arrested in a child prostitution sting, according to police and CNN affiliate KNXV.

Feds nab suspected human trafficker in Connecticut casinoupdated January 12, 2011

A suspected human trafficker who recently was profiled on "America's Most Wanted" was arrested at a Connecticut casino last week, federal authorities said Tuesday.

Federal crackdown on child prostitution results in 884 arrestsupdated November 10, 2010

A three-day federal crackdown on child prostitution rings across the country has resulted in the recovery of 69 children and the arrest of 884 people, including 99 pimps, federal authorities said Monday.

Child trafficking rings bustedupdated November 10, 2010

CNN's Brian Todd reports on a large-scale takedown of child prostitution rings across the U.S.
98

'Women to Go' aims to thwart sex tradeupdated October 25, 2010

CNN's Nadia Bilchik speaks to T.J. Holmes about a window display in an Israeli mall, aimed at battling sex trafficking.
144

U.S. gave STDs to Guatemalansupdated October 2, 2010

The United States is apologizing to Guatemala for research that purposely gave people sexually transmitted diseases.
565

US apologizes for infecting Guatemalans with STDs in the 1940supdated October 2, 2010

The United States apologized Friday for a 1946-1948 research study in which people in Guatemala were intentionally infected with sexually transmitted diseases.

Girl tricked into sexual slaveryupdated September 18, 2010

A Mexican 15-year-old was smuggled into the U.S. and forced into prostitution. CNN's Rafael Romo reports.
227

Promise of a better life leads to the nightmare of sexual slaveryupdated September 18, 2010

Across Mexico, young girls dream of escaping their small towns for the big cities. They dream of a good job and a better life in the United States.

Craigslist says no plans to resume sex ads in the United Statesupdated September 16, 2010

Craigslist has "no plans" to resume running adult services ads that contribute to child sex trafficking in the United States, an official with the online advertising site told a House panel Wednesday.

Underage sex for sale on internetupdated September 16, 2010

CNN's Amber Lyon investigates underage girls being sex trafficked online in America.
237

Online sex ads complicate crackdowns on teen traffickingupdated September 15, 2010

Behind every adult service ad on the internet is a story.

Fugitive 'godfather' captured in Spainupdated September 11, 2010

One of France's most wanted has been captured in Spain.

Investigating forced labor in Nepalupdated September 8, 2010

CNN's Becky Anderson speaks to human trafficking expert, Siddharth Kara, on caste-based forced labor in Nepal.
18

On the trail of human trafficking: forced labor in Nepalupdated September 8, 2010

During the last week I explored two forms of caste-based forced labor in Nepal -- the Badi and the Kamaliri.




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